HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY
Nagaland, the 16th State of the Indian Union, was established on 1st December 1963. It is bounded by Myanmar on the East, Arunachal on the North, Assam on the West and Manipur on the South. It lies between the parallels of 98 degree and 96 degree East Longitude and 26.6 degree and 27.4 degree latitude North of the Equator.
The State of Nagaland has an area of 16.579 sq. km with a population of 19,88,636 as per the 2001 census. The State is mostly mountainous except those areas bordering Assam valley. Mount Saramati is the highest peak in Nagaland with a height of 3,840 metres and its range forms a natural barrier between Nagaland and Myanmar.
The Naga people belong to the Indo-Mongoloid group of people living in the contiguous areas of the North Eastern hills of India and the upper portion of Western Myanmar. The major recognized tribes of Nagaland are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Khiamnungan, Kuki, Konyak, Lotha, Phom, Pochury, Rengma, Sengtam, Sumi, Yimchungru and Zeliang. The Naga languages differ from tribe to tribe and sometimes even from one village to another. They are however, under the Tibeto-Burma family.
In the 12th and 13th Centuries, gradual contacts with the Ahoms of present day Assam was established but this did not have any significant impact on the traditional Naga way of life. However, in the19th Century the British appeared on the scene and ultimately the area was brought under the British Administration. After Independence this territory was made a centrally administered area in 1957 administered by the Governor of Assam. It was known as the Naga Hills Tuensang Area. This failed to quell popular aspirations and unrest began. Hence, in 1961, this was renamed as Nagaland and given the status of State of the Indian Union, which was formally inaugurated on 1 December 1963.
Nagaland is basically a land of agriculture. About 70 percent of the population depends on agriculture. The contribution of agricultural sector in the state is very significant. Rice is the staple food. It occupies about 70 percent of the total area under cultivation and constitutes about 75 percent of the total food production in the state.
The major land use pattern is slash and burn cultivation locally known as Jhum. Area under Jhum cultivation is about 1,01,400 hectare and under terraced cultivation. The total food production during the year was 3,86,300 MT.
Out of the total land area of 16,57,587 hectares, forest area occupy approximately 8,35,436. There are wild life sanctuaries and national park, viz, Intanki and Puliebadze in Kohima district, Fakim in Tuensang and Rangapahar in Dimapur.
There is no major or medium irrigation project so far constructed in the state. The irrigation works are mostly meant to divert small hill streamlets to irrigate valleys used for rice cultivation. The total area under irrigation covers 93,231.43 hectares.
Roads : The total length of roads in Nagaland is 9,860 km which includes national highway, state highways, district and village roads. 996 villages have been linked by roads.
Railways / Aviation : Dimapur is the only place in the state from where air and train services are available. This is tri-weekly Indian Airlines service connecting Dimapur with Kolkata.
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